What are the clinical forms of the celiac disease?
The typical celiac disease:
the typical forms of the celiac disease begin early, generally within a few months of the start of weaning, with symptoms of intestinal malabsorption: chronic diarrhoea, retardation of growth, lack of appetite, vomiting, and abdominal distension (“bloated belly”).
The atypical celiac disease:
the atypical forms of the celiac disease manifest themselves late with predominantly non-gastrointestinal symptoms, such as irondeficiency anaemia, an increase in hepatic transaminase, recurring abdominal pains, dental enamel hypoplasia, dermatitis herpetiformis, or short stature in schoolaged children.
The silent celiac disease:
the silent forms of the celiac disease are diagnosed by chance in apparently healthy subjects as the result of an examination. Many cases are silent only in appearance; after beginning treatment, subjects register a marked improvement in psychological and physical wellbeing.
The potential celiac disease:
cases are defined as potential or latent if they present positive serological markers but normal intestinal biopsies. Patients with latent celiac disease, if left on an unrestricted diet, may in time develop a full-blown intestinal lesion. An elevated occurrence of the celiac disease, often in an insidious form, is found in subjects affected with autoimmune pathologies (especially insulin-dependent diabetes and thyroiditis), syndromic pathologies (Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Williams syndrome), or a deficiency of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA).